hLe 19 septembre 2006 : Un travail bénévole de S. M. que nous remercions vivement.

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environnement, nature, vert, écologie, biologique, planète Terre

Palladium : known economically workable deposits will be exhausted in 2023

Palladium

 

The dreaded   billbook that shatters the man in thestreet

2012 : end of terbium
2018 :
end of hafnium
2021 :
end of silver
end of gold
end of zinc
2028 :
end of tin
2030 : end of lead
2038 :
end of tantalum
2039 : end of copper
2040 : end of uranium
2048 : end of nickel
2050 : end of oil
2064 : end of platinum
2072 :
end of natural gas
2087 : end of iron
2139 : end of aluminium
2158 : end of coal

When will beans run out?

Palladium is a rare metallic chemical element (0.015  ppm in the Earth"s crust), in the platinum group, with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

Nobody knows palladium and yet it is essential to the workings of catalytic converters for vehicle exhausts as well as computers. (See below.)

Palladium is the fifth non-renewable resource set to disappear thanks to intensive exploitation by mankind.

Remaining workable deposits are estimated at 3,480 tonnes.

June 2008: at current rates of production, 232 tonnes per year, deposits will last 15 years.

Extractable deposits of this metal will therefore disappear for good in 2023.

This date is only a rough indication. Sources differ, and it could change with the evolution of our civilisation.

Apart from its use in catalytic converters (45% of consumption), palladium is used in electronics (13%), and in the production of dentures (11%) and jewellery (20%). Miscellaneous (11%).

In electronics, it is used chiefly for the production of multi-layer ceramic condensers (MLCC) which find application in the manufacture of electrical components for mobile telephones and computers, as well as in cars and domestic appliances.
Electro-plating applications include
connectors and microchip components for electronic circuits and hybrid integrated circuits.

However problems arising from its disappearance will start to make themselves felt well before the fateful date. On this subject, see Hubbert"s peak theory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Of course, there will still be palladium in the ground, but in extremely diluted form, rendering extraction impossible.

Even if, thanks to advances in technology, we find new deposits by digging deeper and deeper into the Earth"s crust, this will afford us only a few years"reprieve and will not make a major impact on the situation.

Palladium was created when a star exploded and the Sun and the Earth were formed from the debris, over five billion years ago.

You cannot produce it artificially and there is no substitute. The Moon and the asteroids do not contain the metal in an extractable form. And just imagine the energy it would take to bring some back from Mars or Venus!

There will still be recycling but demand, which will keep growing exponentially with the development of the emerging economies, will far outstrip supply.

The majority of the known reserves are located in Russia and South Africa.

To learn more about palladium, see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palladium

Translation Nicholas ROSE

Palladium

environnement, nature, vert, écologie, biologique, planète TerreDon"t miss reading Point of view by Michel Walter , a programme for the end of our civilisation of wastage.

S. M., le 23 janvier 2007

 

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environnement, nature, vert, écologie, biologique, planète TerreAutomatic translation in English of the 32000 pages of the french site SOS-planete

environnement, nature, écologique , bioProjected dates for the exhaustion of exploitable natural resources at current consumption rates

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